Volume 4, Issue 3 (Fall 2020)                   ijcoe 2020, 4(3): 23-33 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Khoshravan H, Alinejad T, Naqinezhad A, Tirgan S. The effect of Caspian Sea level rise on the environment of the sand dunes of Mazandaran, Iran. ijcoe. 2020; 4 (3) :23-33
URL: http://ijcoe.org/article-1-230-en.html
1- Water research institute, ministry of Energy
2- Department of Environmental Engineering, Environmental Engineering, University of Tehran
3- Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran
Abstract:   (262 Views)
Sand dunes are crucial factors related to stability of the coasts, and vegetation plays a decisive role in their creation. In this research paper, analyzing the effects of the Caspian Sea level fluctuations and human intervention on transformation of habitats and biodiversity of coastal plants on sand dunes is assumed as the main goal. The morphological structure of coastal sand dunes and the biodiversity of their plant species were investigated by selecting 11 transects in the eastern coast of the central Mazandaran (Babolsar-Amirabad), also the major changes of the sand dunes in coastal lands were evaluated during the period of the Caspian Sea water level rise, 1978-1995, using the remote sensing. The results showed that coastal dunes in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea are divided into three groups, intact or healthy, semi-healthy and completely destructed. In total, 174 plant species belonging to 134 genera and 75 families were identified in coastal embankment ecosystems as well as in active, middle and back sand dunes of the coast. The impacts of human intervention (changes in land cover and land use) and some increase in the Caspian Sea level during 1978-1995 were identified as factors affecting the damage of coastal sand dunes. 
Full-Text [PDF 452 kb]   (122 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Marine and Coastal Geotechnics
Received: 2020/12/1 | Accepted: 2021/01/24 | ePublished: 2021/02/20

References
1. Yılmaz, K.T., Harmancı, D., Ünlükaplan, Y., Alphan, H. and Tezcan, L., (2019), Impacts of agriculture on coastal dunes and a proposal for adaptation to climate change: the case of the Akyatan Area in the Seyhan Delta. In Climate Change Impacts on Basin Agro-ecosystems (pp. 165-182). Springer, Cham. [DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-01036-2_8]
2. Nordstrom K., Psuty N., Carter B.(Eds.), (1990), Coastal dunes: form and process, John Wiley and Sons, Ltd., Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, England, 392 p.
3. Kroonenberg, S.B., Badyukova, E.N., Storms, J.E.A., Ignatov, E.I. and Kasimov, N.S., (2000), A full sea-level cycle in 65 years: barrier dynamics along Caspian shores, Sedimentary Geology, 134(3-4), pp.257-274. [DOI:10.1016/S0037-0738(00)00048-8]
4. Khoshravan, H. and Rouhanizadeh, S., (2011). The impact of coastal modification and Caspian rapid sea level change on the Amirabad coastal zone, Ecopersia, (2), pp.81-91.
5. Van Der Maarel, E., (2003), Some remarks on the functions of European coastal ecosystems, Phytocoenologia, 33(2-3), pp.187-202. [DOI:10.1127/0340-269X/2003/0033-0187]
6. Khoshravan, H., (2000), Application of biological methods in conservation of coastal areas of southern part of the Caspian Sea, Report by Ministry of Energy, Iranian Water Resources Management Organization, Caspian Water Resources Research Centre (In Persian).
7. Khoshravan, H., Banihashemi, S. and Shapouri, M., (2013), Temporal and spatial variation of sand Dunes, the Caspian Sea, International Journal of Marine Science, 3, pp.173-177. [DOI:10.5376/ijms.2013.03.0022]
8. Cam, K., (1972), Beaches and coasts, Edward Arnold, London, 570p.
9. Amini, A., Moussavi-Harami, R., Lahijani, H. and Mahboubi, A., (2012), Sedimentological, geochemical and geomorphological factors in formation of coastal dunes and nebkha fields in Miankaleh coastal barrier system (Southeast of Caspian Sea, North Iran), Geosciences Journal, 16(2), p.139-152. [DOI:10.1007/s12303-012-0014-7]
10. Pye, K., Saye, S.E. and Blott, S.J., (2007), Sand Dune Processes and Management for Flood and Coastal Defence. Part 2. Sand Dune Processes and Morphology. Joint Defra/Environment Agency Flood and Coastal Erosion Risk Management R & D Programme, R & D Technical report FD1302. TR.
11. Glushko, T., (1996), Features of landscape structure of the coastal dunes of the East Caspian Sea, Landscape and urban planning, 34(3-4), pp.183-188. [DOI:10.1016/0169-2046(95)00222-7]
12. Lancaster, N., (1995), Geomorphology of desert dunes. Psychology Press, 290 p.
13. Honrado, J., Vicente, J., Lomba, A., Alves, P., Macedo, J.A., Henriques, R., Granja, H. and Caldas, F.B., (2010), Fine-scale patterns of vegetation assembly in the monitoring of changes in coastal sand-dune landscapes, Web Ecology, 10(1), pp.1-14. [DOI:10.5194/we-10-1-2010]
14. Drius, M., Jones, L., Marzialetti, F., de Francesco, M.C., Stanisci, A. and Carranza, M.L., (2019), Not just a sandy beach. The multi-service value of Mediterranean coastal dunes, Science of the total environment, 668, pp.1139-1155. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.364]
15. Cakan, H., YILMAZ, K.T., Alphan, H. and Ünlükaplan, Y., (2011), The classification and assessment of vegetation for monitoring coastal sand dune succession: the case of Tuzla in Adana, Turkey. Turkish Journal of Botany, 35(6), pp.697-711.
16. Chytrý, M., (2000), Formalized approaches to phytosociological vegetation classification. Preslia, 72(1), pp.1-29.
17. Siadati, S., (2010), Assessment of variation of floristic composition along the altitudinal gradient of kheyrud forest (50 to 1000 m), Master of science thesis, College of Science, University of Tehran, 112 pages (in Persian).
18. Kasymov, A. and Rogers, L., (1996), Ecological description of the Southern Caspian Sea in the oil-field region of Guneshly, Polish Ecological Studies, 22(3-4), pp. 83-93.
19. Naghinezhad, A., Saeidi, M.S., Norouzi, M. and Faridi, M., (2006), Contribution to the vascular and bryophyte flora as well as habitat diversity of the Boujagh National Park, N. Iran, Rostaniha, 7, pp. 83-105.
20. Naghinejad, A. and Khoshravan, H., (2010), Plant biodiversity of international RAMSAR wetlands along the coastline of southern Caspian Sea towards a diverse and sustainable situation, The International Conference on "Biodiversity of the Aquatic Environment "Towards a diverse and sustainable world". Lattakia, Syria.
21. Naghinejad, A., (2008), Contribution to threatened vegetation zone of sand dunes in southern Caspian coasts, Iran, The 1st International Conference on the Caspian Region Environmental Changes, Babolsar, Iran.
22. Khodadadi, S., (2007), Study of the flora and habitats of the estil wetland (astara). Master of science thesis, College of Science, University of Gilan (In Persian).
23. Seighali, N., (2008), Floristic study of coastal section to intermediate heights of Shalamanrood watershed in Langrood city of Guilan province, Master of science thesis, College of Science, University of Orumia (In Persian).
24. Khoshravan, H., (2007), Beach sediments, morphodynamics, and risk assessment, Caspian Sea coast, Iran, Quaternary International, 167, pp.35-39. [DOI:10.1016/j.quaint.2007.02.014]
25. Rechinger, K. H., (ed) (1963-1998), Flora Iranica, vols.1-178-Graz: Akademische Druck-und Verlasanstalt (1-174), Wien: Naturhistorisches Museum, (175-178).
26. Ghahreman, A., (1975-2007), Colored Flora of Iran, 1-26, Research institute of forests and rangelands press.
27. Khoshravan, H. and Vafai, B., (2016), Caspian Sea level fluctuations (past, recent and future), Proceeding of 18th International Marine Industries Conference, Kish Island, Persian Gulf, Iran, pp: 71-79 (In Persian).

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA

Send email to the article author


© 2021 All Rights Reserved | International Journal of Coastal and Offshore Engineering